Effectiveness of an integrated intervention in the control of endo- and ectoparasites of pigs kept by smallholder farmers in Mbeya rural and Mbozi districts, Tanzania
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This study was conducted to evaluate effectiveness of an integrated management intervention in the control of endo- and ectoparasites of pigs kept by smallholder farmers in Mbeya Rural and Mbozi districts of southern highlands of Tanzania. A repeated cross-sectional group randomization design was employed, with 10 villages in the intervention group and six villages in the control group. The intervention consisted of improving pig confinement, feeds and feeding practices, and strategic anthelmintic treatment of pigs with oxfendazole, to primarily control Taenia solium (porcine) cysticercosis and nematodes; and with ivermectin to control ectoparasites and nematodes. Blood and faecal samples, ectoparasite specimens and skin scrapings were collected at baseline and two follow-up rounds, at an interval of seven months. A total of 482, 460 and 421 pigs were sampled in 221, 196 and 139 households at baseline, first and second follow-up visits respectively. Sero-prevalence of PC, prevalence and burden of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes and prevalence of ectoparasites were determined using Ag-ELISA, McMaster faecal egg counting technique and body searches/skin scrapings, respectively. Mann Whitney test was used to measure intervention effect by comparing changes from baseline values of prevalence and faecal egg counts between the two groups. No significant difference (p > 0.05) was observed between the two groups, in changes from baseline of sero-prevalence of PC. The intervention significantly reduced prevalence of Trichuris suis (p = 0.044) and mean faecal egg counts of Ascaris suum (p = 0.02) from baseline to first follow-up. The intervention showed a substantial effect on the prevalence of ectoparasites as it significantly reduced overall prevalence of ectoparasites (p = 0.026), lice (p = 0.045), ticks (p = 0.049) and mites (p = 0.013) from baseline to first follow-up, and prevalence of ectoparasites, lice and mites from baseline to second follow-up (p = 0.052, p = 0.03, p = 0.017 respectively). This study has demonstrated a moderate effect of the intervention on controlling GI nematodes and ectoparasites, but no effect on sero-prevalence of PC. The reported ineffectiveness of the intervention against PC is probably an underestimation because serology is not able to provide quantitative data. It may also be a result of reduced compliance as this was a field study. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to better understand transmission dynamics of PC and explore One Health approaches including treatment of the human population against taeniosis to better secure public health.
|Tidsskrift||Veterinary Parasitology: Regional Studies and Reports|
|Status||Udgivet - aug. 2018|